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Monday, 9 April 2018

ideas that have helped mankind summary

                     summary

5. ideas that have helped mankind
Bertrand Russell in the essay," ideas that have helped mankind"has thrown light on the growth of human civilization which gradually came into being. it took a long time to take the shape which we find around us.
 
ideas that have helped mankind
all, what we achieved is not the outcome of a day or a week. the factors which helped mankind to reach the recent stage bears importance. thousands of years back human race was uncivilized and leading the life of the wild animal. in those days they were living in jungles and caves like other wild animals. to protect them from hot summer and cold winter were hair oner their bodies, thought not very thick and long . their lives were quite, uncertain and unprotected, with the rise in their population they felt themselves more protected than earlier. now they had become in certain respects, more civilized and looked less like animals. it was also due to their superior mental set-up. it laid the foundation of their domestic life.

                  the author narrates about the diversity of enjoyments. he explaing that animal did not have the pleasure of music, poetry, science, football, etc. which the human being enjoy. it means, our intelligence had definitely enabled us to get a much greater variety. it means, our intelligence had definitely enabled us to get a much greater variety of enjoyment then to animals. but the author realises that it is neither number nor multiplicity of pleasures which made the glory of the man. it was rather our intellectual and moral qualities, and we know more than animals is a fact. within the head we were no less feroceous as those of any animal. the ideas that helped most to the mankind and concord with him may be divided into two kids - (1)those that contributed to knowledge and technique and (2) those that were concerned with morals and politics. by his knowledge and technique he introduced language and it developed gradually. they further invented fire either before or after the beginning of language. according to the author fire might have been used to keep away wild animals at its first stage. but in course of time they found the fire much more useful for other purposes too. it was used  for cooking as well and thus the long history of cookery began. domestic animals like cow and sheep made the life of human- being cimfortable, pleasant and secure. some anthropologists presume that the people started taming these animals was the invention of agriculture. the art of writing was introduced in the last of pre-historic inventions of minkind. writing gradually developed and it took thousands of years to become whatever it is in the present from.


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